The Last Killing

In October 1994, Punjab Police whistleblower Satwant Singh Manak filed a petition calling on the Punjab & Haryana High Court to investigate the torture and extrajudicial execution of ten people. Almost 20 years later, the Supreme Court of India granted Manak and victim families leave to appeal the High Court judgment that had denied them a high level inquiry into these unlawful killings. Ensaaf provided extensive litigation support with the Supreme Court petition.

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Custodial Killing of Kuljit Singh Dhatt

In May 2014, an Additional Sessions Judge convicted three Punjab Police officers in the July 1989 abduction and murder of Kuljit Singh Dhatt. However, she merely sentenced them to concurrent sentences of five years, three years, and two years, plus a fine. The Dhatt family will appeal the sentences. Ensaaf provided litigation support in this case.

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Murder of Human Rights Defender Jaswant Singh Khalra

Ensaaf provided critical litigation support in the two cases regarding the murder of human rights defender Jaswant Singh Khalra: the criminal case against several police officers, and a petition calling on the government to prosecute former Punjab police chief KPS Gill for his role in the crimes. Ensaaf also organized international advocacy concerning these cases.

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Punjab Mass Cremations Case

Ensaaf provided crucial litigation support and organized the first international interventions in the Punjab mass cremations case proceeding before India's National Human Rights Commission, in which security forces are implicated in thousands of killings and secret cremations throughout Punjab.

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Bhalla Commission

Ensaaf provided litigation support, attended hearings, and investigated and documented disappearances and extrajudicial executions in Punjab for the petitioners before the Bhalla Commission, new subcommittee, and NHRC.

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Other Programs

Community Organizing & Education

We educate the general public and organize survivors to advocate for their rights to truth, justice, and reparations.


We document abuses to counter official denials and build evidence for accountability, conducting innovative projects and producing groundbreaking reports.

United Nations Advocacy

We alert the United Nations to critical human rights issues about the situation of impunity in Punjab, as well as specific cases.