Ensaaf’s groundbreaking reports document and analyze abuses and impunity, countering official denials and building evidence for accountability.

November 2014

No Stone Unturned: 25 Years of Contesting Impunity


Read an in-depth analysis of the Kuljit Singh Dhatt case, including the role of state institutions in fabricating evidence, intimidating witnesses, protecting the perpetrators, and delaying justice. The report spotlights those who have stood by the truth, from family members to eyewitnesses. The family filed a case in September 1989 and a sessions court delivered a verdict on May 9, 2014. Learn why it took 25 years to reach a trial verdict and why justice still has not been delivered.

January 2009

Violent Deaths and Enforced Disappearances During the Counterinsurgency in Punjab, India

A Preliminary Quantitative Analysis

Ensaaf and the Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group

The report by Ensaaf and HRDAG, “Violent Deaths and Enforced Disappearances During the Counterinsurgency in Punjab, India,” presents empirical findings suggesting that the intensification of counterinsurgency operations in Punjab in the early 1990s was accompanied by a shift in state violence from targeted lethal human rights violations to systematic enforced disappearances and extrajudicial executions, accompanied by mass “illegal cremations.” Indian security officials have dismissed claims of human rights violations as unavoidable “aberrations” during the counterinsurgency against alleged terrorists in Punjab from 1984 to 1995.

October 2007

Protecting the Killers

A Policy of Impunity in Punjab, India

Ensaaf and Human Rights Watch

This report examines the challenges faced by victims and their relatives in pursuing legal avenues for accountability for the human rights abuses perpetrated during the government’s counterinsurgency campaign. The report describes the impunity enjoyed by officials responsible for violations and the near total failure of India’s judicial and state institutions, from the National Human Rights Commission to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), to provide justice for victims’ families.

March 2007 (2nd edition)

Twenty Years of Impunity

The November 1984 Pogroms of Sikhs in India


In March 2007, Ensaaf released the second edition of Twenty Years of Impunity. More than two years had passed since the publication of the first edition. During that time, the Justice Nanavati Commission of Inquiry submitted its report to the Indian government, the Congress administration submitted an Action Taken Report to Parliament, and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh apologized, but refused to accept state responsibility for the massacres. The report inclues a new chapter that succinctly articulates the failings of the Nanavati Commission and the Action Taken Report, after a thorough consideration of the evidence at the government’s disposal.

January 2007

The Punjab Mass Cremations Case (pdf)

India Burning the Rule of Law


From 1984 to 1994, Punjab security forces engaged in counter-insurgency operations that included widespread and systematic human rights abuses such as torture, disappearances, and extrajudicial executions, which claimed an estimated 10,000 to 25,000 lives. In the early 1990s, Director General of Police (Punjab) KPS Gill expanded upon a system of rewards and incentives for police to capture and kill militants, leading to an increase in disappearances and extrajudicial executions of civilians and militants alike. Hundreds of perpetrators, including all of the major architects of these crimes, have escaped accountability.

October 2005

Punjab Police: Fabricating Terrorism through Illegal Detention and Torture

June 2005 to August 2005


This report details human rights violations committed by Indian security forces in recent militancy-related arrests. From June 2005 to August 2005, Indian police claim to have arrested several dozen individuals intent on reviving or supporting militancy in Punjab. These arrests center around the apprehension of Jagtar Singh Hawara, the main accused in the 1995 assassination of Punjab’s chief minister.


January 2015

Confront India on poor human rights record

The Hill

Sukhman Dhami (Ensaaf)


March 2013

India won’t be ‘the world’s largest democracy’ until it upholds human rights

Christian Science Monitor

Sukhman Dhami (Ensaaf)


November 2009

Bay Area can help seek justice in India massacres

The Mercury News

Jaskaran Kaur (Ensaaf)


February 2007

Injustice Cost Votes in Punjab Polls

The Asian Age

Jasmine Marwaha (Ensaaf) and Meenakshi Ganguly (Human Rights Watch)


July 2005

The Legacy of India’s Counter-Terrorism

The Boston Globe

Jaskaran Kaur (Ensaaf)

Letters, Communications & Legal Briefs

December 2017

Rights Groups Call on UN Expert to Intervene in Torture of British National

Human rights organisations REDRESS and Ensaaf today have filed an urgent appeal to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture in the case of Jagtar Singh Johal, “Jaggi”, a British man who has been detained without charge in India since 4 November 2017.


April 2015

Illegal Detention and Abuse of U.S. Citizen in Punjab

On April 15, 2015, Ensaaf reached out to Congressmen and Senators on behalf of U.S. citizen Ravinderjeet Singh. The letter discusses the threats, false charges, illegal and arbitrary detention, and physical abuse suffered by Ravinderjeet Singh by government and security forces in Punjab, India.

For a copy of each letter, please click on the following links: Congressman Chris Smith; Senator Dianne Feinstein; Senator Barbara Boxer; Congressman Jerry McNerney.


November 2014

Ensaaf, The Sikh Coalition, and Human Rights Watch Urge President Obama To Support Justice for 1984 Massacres

Ensaaf, in partnership with The Sikh Coalition and Human Rights Watch, sent a letter today to President Barack Obama, urging him to support justice for the 1984 anti-Sikh massacres, which claimed the lives of thousands of Sikhs throughout India 30 years ago.


April 2013

Joint Letter to United States Department of State: Call on India to Halt the Execution of Devinder Pal Singh Bhullar (pdf)

Ensaaf, Jakara Movement, Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund, Sikh Coalition, Sikh Research Institute, United Sikhs and Voices For Freedom issued letters to the United States Department of State (pdf), Commission on International Religious Freedom (pdf), and the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission (pdf).


January 2012

Joint Submission to Universal Periodic Review by Ensaaf and REDRESS (pdf)



November 2007

Submission to the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (pdf)



November 2007

Submission to UN Working Group on Enforced and Involuntary Disappearances (pdf)

Ensaaf, REDRESS, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice


September 2006

International Legal Arguments: High Court Petition to Investigate and Prosecute Gill for Murder of Khalra (pdf)



September 2006

Executive Summary: High Court Petition to Investigate and Prosecute Gill for Murder of Khalra (pdf)



May 2006

Communication to Special Representative on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders (Disappearance of Human Rights Attorney Sukhwinder Singh Bhatti) (pdf)



May 2006

Joint Letter to Director, Central Bureau of Investigation, calling for prosecution of KPS Gill for murder of Jaswant Singh Khalra

Ensaaf, Human Rights Watch, REDRESS, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice


November 2005

Summary of Order Convicting Six Punjab Policemen in Khalra’s Abduction and Murder



September 2005

Joint Letter to Congressional Human Rights Caucus: The “Disappeared” and the Disappearance of Justice in India

Ensaaf, Human Rights Watch, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice

Select Other Publications (not published by Ensaaf)